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【托福】论综合写作的逻辑性

【托福】论综合写作的逻辑性

发布时间:2016-05-31 阅读:23 评论:0

 其实很早就改写这个帖子了,偷懒了好久~~

  刚刚看了一看写作小组的童鞋的综合作文,发现还是存在一些问题的,想想还是写出来和大家探讨一下~~

  今天我以自己的经历来讲一下逻辑~~作为秋大帖子的一个细节性补充~~

  Q1:综合写作究竟考什么?

  我们常说,写综合不仅需要听懂听力,更重要的是写出阅读和听力之间的逻辑,但是往往小伙伴会不知道究竟怎样才算有逻辑,故而屡屡得了FAIR~~

  其实在我看来,综合写作真正考的恰恰是逻辑:如何融会贯通阅读和听力的思路;如何通过对比,找到合适的反驳点。他真的不单纯是概述,而是需要你自己去总结,写出一条贯穿始终的逻辑线。

  我曾经给版友的回复中强调的一点是:顺着听力的思路去写,后来想想这样子的回答也是比较含糊~~太过于感性,没法有直观的认识,今天我就教一种特别简单粗暴的方法。

  Q2:综合写作的阅读可以帮你些什么?

  综合写作,重视听力,以听力作为主题来写,这都没有错,但是你也不可以忽视阅读。往往,阅读是一种信号——听力的内容,听力的反驳点,你都可以从阅读中找到蛛丝马迹,这样你才可以有重点地去听听力~~

  以tpo22为例:

  Reading:

  First, the increased use of ethanol fuel would not help to solve one of the biggest environmental problems caused by gasoline use: global warming. Like gasoline, ethanol releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere when it is burned for fuel and carbon dioxide is greenhouse gas: it helps trap heat in the atmosphere.Thus, ethanol offers no environmental advantage over gasoline.[Reading的第一个观点:releases carbon dioxide in the process of using ethanol fuel→ not good to the environment]

  Listening:

  First, the increased use of Ethanol fuel will not add to global warming.[听力的第一个观点] It’s true thatwhen Ethanol is burned, it releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere,[转陈述阅读的第一个点的理由。]but[信号词,接下去说的就是听力的反驳点。] as you read, Ethanol is often made from plants such as corn. Well, the process of growing the plants counteracts this release of carbon dioxide.Let me explain.[具体解释说明前一句的抵消作用。即使你一开始没有听出来counteract,综合也会将重点再次解释给你听~~] Every growing plant absorbs carbon dioxide from the air as part of its nutrition. So growing plants for Ethanol production actually removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

  如果说tpo22第一点的阅读中细节只是辅助支撑,对于听力的理解帮不上太大的忙,那么第二点的阅读细节却可以帮助你去理解听力部分在说些什么:

  Reading:

  Second, the production of significant amounts of ethanol would dramatically reduce the amount of plants available for uses other fuel.[Reading的第二个观点:reduce the amount of plants which is used to produce other fuel.(in other part)] For example[细节点补充论证reading,解释说明主题句,帮助理解], much of the corn now grown in the United States is used to feed farm animals such as cows and chickens. It is estimated that if ethanol were used to satisfy just 10 percent of the fuel needs in the United States, more than 60 percent of the corn currently grown in the united stated would have to be used to produce ethanol. If most of the corn were used to produce ethanol, a substantial source of food for animals would disappear.[听力就此点反驳]

  Q3:如何去听综合的听力?

  真的写的时候,对于听力,其实真的只要听懂就可以了,甚至你都不用转述,直接把听力原文照搬就可以~~

  而且,更重要的是,在听力中,教授会给你足够的信号词~~来帮助你理解。我在前面给的例子中有标识。

  同样地,如果你一时没有听懂一个词,比如在tpo22第一点的counteract一开始没有听懂,那么这时你不要慌张,因为对于重点,综合写作的听力会反复解释说明~~例如上文中的Let me explain~~

  又比如第三点听力中的:studies show that,他都是通过例子、换词解释,来使得你弥补自己没有听到的重点。

  Q4: 什么是我所说的逻辑性~~

  tpo中的综合写作,但凡是较新的,你会发现这样一个现象:听力部分肯定阅读,那么你完全可以有这么一个写作思路:

  同样地,我以tpo 22为例:

  总起:Firstly, the professor points out that ethanol fuel do not add to the global warning. 或者Firstly, the professor refutes the idea that the increasing use of ethanol will add to global warming.

  听力肯定阅读的:Even though at first process, just like what has descibed in the reading,carbon dioxide would be released into the atmosphere when it is burn

  听力反驳阅读的:this carbon dioxide would be absorbed by the plants as a source of nutrient later, since ethanol are made by plants such as corn. That is to say, the growing plants counteract the release of carbon dioxide.

  总结得出:In this situation, contrary to reading’s concern, the ethanol would not do harm to the environment.得出reading is not convincing

  Q5: 关于开头~~

  我是主张直接表明听力professor的态度的,直接就说Professor disagree with……类似与这种的,算是定下一个基调;同时你也可以将3个理由概述一番,使得前后更连贯,当然不概述也是可以的~~

  如果你能找出反驳点,你就能很顺利地按照听力的思路,把综合写下来。

  综合考的不是你的叙述,考的也不单是听力,它也你能写清楚逻辑层次,在理解听力和阅读的基础上理清思路,你就能很自然的拿高分~~字数超不超不应该成为大家的困扰~~


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